Wild Oregano Oil is 100% organic certified with 80% carvacol
Research supports the use of Wild Oregano oil against viral and fungal infections and it destroys many strains of bacteria and other parasites. Studies conducted by Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., have shown that the wild, mountain-grown oregano is an excellent anti-fungal agent, completely killing Candida albicans.
Origaum Vulgare or Wild Oregano is a native Mediterranean woody shrub of Europe. A herb rich in carvacol –The most potent natural antiseptic with miraculous antibiotic properties. Carvacol is the strongest laboratory tested antiseptic known to mankind till date.
The Oil of Wild Oregano is an age old potent health aid, a panacea for all pathogenic infections. Tiny amounts of this wild oil helps you in quickly protecting yourself and your family against various pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungus, yeast and other parasites. It is nature’s “natural antiseptic.” Up until 1950, it was used to sterilize operating instruments.
Through ages Oregano oil has been used against various ailments such as Cold, Flu, Cough , Sore Throat , Sinusitis, Bronchitis, Bladder and Kidney Infections , Indigestion, Stomach infections, Diarrhea, Peptic Ulcer, tumors, Allergies, Infections of the sex organs, chest infections, Liver disorders, Bad Breath, Gums infection and many more. It is very effective against Parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Staphylococcus aureas, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and others.
History tells us that Gerard, the 17th century British herbalist, described the oil of oregano as a remedy for digestive complaints and head colds. William Langham, in Garden of Health (1633), described a wide range of uses in diverse conditions such as bladder trouble, bleeding, heart failure, head pain, itchy skin, mouth pain, freckles or spots on the skin, stomachache, intestinal worms, and toothache. . In the 15th century, Paracelsus used Wild Oregano to treat diarrhea, psoriasis, vomiting, jaundice, and fungal diseases.
Oil of Wild Oregano is rich in natural carvacol –nature’s strongest antimicrobial. It is an age old remedy against infections for all sorts of pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungus, yeast and other parasites. Its usage has no side effects and builds your immunity besides fighting against antibodies.
It protects you and your family against varied pathogens on a diverse platform. It’s your quick doctor at home easily available.
It has no side effects, thus protecting you against potential drug side effects and also mutant variations.
It builds your internal immunity making you internally strong to fight against pathogens.
And pathogens are not able to build immunity against Wild Oregano Oil as with the pharmaceutical drugs.
Nature Supplies Natural Wild Oregano Oil is 100% organic certified with 80% carvacol.
It is mixed with extra virgin olive oil 3:1 for greater health benefit as this specific concentration gets faster absorption into the blood stream both externally and internally.
A skin sensitivity test is highly recommended before external use.
Take 1-3 drops of the oil, rub vigorously over the affected area such as bladder region or stomach in case of pain or discomfort. Repeat 3 times a day for a period of 1-2 weeks.
Wild Oregano Oil consumed internally too as well as can be rubbed on gums as an anti-inflammatory.
‘Nature Supplies’ provides 100% organic, 80% carvacol rich wild oregano oil in the most convenient dropper bottles.
Research supports the use of Wild Oregano oil against viral and fungal infections and it destroys many strains of bacteria and other parasites. Studies conducted by Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., have shown that the wild, mountain-grown oregano is an excellent anti-fungal agent, completely killing Candida albicans.
A group of wild stallions might be a stubborn bunch, but no moreso than a lone wild stallion protecting his harem of mares. See all National Geographic Videos: video.nationalgeographic.com
Related Wild Articles
Mind Movies Review
This is bad information for you and me, it has left me speechlessâ¦This Mind Movies review has turned my life upside down, turned almost everything I knew and believed being proper in Net Marketing and advertising around.
What’s the poor information? I can hear you ask, properly if your are reading this that signifies you as me just of lately stumbled upon Ryan Higgins Mind Movies 2 bonus and that’s really bad, since you can have reached you goals in existence very much earlier, if you’ve had entry to this solution, however the excellent information or ought to I say good news, is you uncovered my Mind Movies 2 bonus review, which means you are only actions aside of taking manage of one’s existence and obtaining whatever it is you’ve constantly dreamed of
When Ryan Higgins came to me and asked me to test out his Mind Movies training course I wasn’t definitely interested, as I couldn’t see how this would fit in with creating money for the net and World-wide-web marketing in standard, but boy do I thank my lucky star that he is often a very persuasive guy.
I did let him know which i would give this 1 month of testing no much more no less and I’d write just about every little detail of my assessment into this Mind Movies review, the good the bad and the ugly and he just laughed and mentioned “I wouldn’t anticipate anything less”.
Ok, allow me see how you can place this, I’m an serious World-wide-web Entrepreneur and I live and have a very really stunning lifestyle, and thought to some extend I had a fantastic understanding with the Net and tips on how to make funds from it, it is incredibly uncommon if not almost certainly not that i see one thing new or one thing that rocks my core believes but that is among these time.
You happen to be about to undercover one of probably the most strong magic formula of this era in my Mind Movie review, that is the subsequent phase inside normal evolution of Web marketing and the best way to make a killing from it, and correctly it is the most critical action available for you to bring in your quest to become financial free.
Usually when I do any review, I will have a very list of all of the points, I found screening the system, this time I only have just one, but this really is the best highly effective point I have identified to this day:
â¢ With MindMovies you may accomplish everything you want.
While using Mind Movies course you can take your latest world wide web organization, apply what you understand to it and you might double your revenue just as I did or in case you are just beginning out you possibly can take this and begin doing dollars straight aside it’s that powerful.
My Mind Movies review has arrive to an end, WOW this is tough to put into words as I am afraid which i are unable to do this training course justice, but this could alter your life, NO enable me rephrase this WILL change your lifestyle, it is no mumbo jumbo that is the genuine deal, please will not listen towards folks screaming Mind Movies Scam as you can shed out, open your mind and try this and you might not regret it, I promise.
I have turned everybody in my family onto this and they ones who applied the tactics to their lifetime the course have not failed 1 single an example of them, not a single.
I consequently conclude my Mind Film review by asking you: Have you been ready to alter your lifestyle for your much better? In case your answer is YES, then got for the link below and watch the Mind Movies Video NOW!
Related Mind Articles
Contributions of Ancient Arabian and Egyptian Scientists on Botany and Agriculture
Md. Wasim Aktar*
Deptt. of Agril. Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
There was a great scarcity of water and vegetation in the desert of Arabia. The people living there needed plants to feed their animals. They wandered in search of vegetation, and went wherever they could find it. This great importance of plants resulted in their becoming an important topic of Arabic literature.
The study of plants was chiefly made from medical and agricultural points of view. The Arabs already knew about the medical use of some herbs and shrubs (‘Aqaqir wa’l Hashä’ish). At the advent of Islam when, in connection with preaching, Jihad, or some other purposes they came in contact with other peoples, they took interest not only in the names and uses of plants, but they became also interested in their cultivation. So they tried to know the matters relating to agriculture such as the methods of plantation and fertilization, the time suitable for sowing and harvesting, and the nature of the soil. They made correct observations on sexual differences between such plants as palms and hemps. The plants were classified into those that grow from cuttings, those that grow from seeds and those that grow spontaneously.
The Ancient scientists’ knowledge of applied botany and agriculture can be estimated by reading the accounts of gardens and crops cultivated in different parts of the Ancient scientist world, particularly those in Spain. At one time ancient Spain was proverbial in this respect. The Arabs introduced irrigation and agricultural methods there with the result that it was transformed into a garden.
Cotton, rice, sugarcane, asparagus, oranges, lemons and pomegranates were some of the plants and fruits brought from outside and cultivated in Spain. Through that country the Europeans became aware of the cultivation of many plants which they did not know before. The famous gardens of Persia, Spain and Morocco, with well p1anned arrangements of trees, shrubs and flowers, with their tilled floors, their rivulets and fountains of water, built with an aesthetic taste, establishing harmony between architecture and vegetation throws light on their interest in agriculture, gardening and love for flowers .
Since the Arabs did not know much about the art of agriculture, they turned towards other peoples including the Romans, Nabateans and Persians for learning it. They also translated their botanical works into Arabic.
There are many lexicographers, geographers, travellers and physicians who wrote on plants. One of them was Abü Sa’id ‘Abd al-Malik lbn Quraib al-Asma’i. He was a native of Basrah, and came to Baghdad during the reign of Härun al- Rashid. Asma’i was born in 739 and died in 831. He is the author of a number of works on different subjects. One of them is on plants and trees. In the preface of this book the author has provided a general discussion on plants. First of all he has mentioned various types of soils having different conditions regarding their capabilities for cultivation and vegetation. Then he has mentioned the trees, giving an account of their various stages of development. After that he has classified the plants, giving examples for each class. Finally, he has described those plants which grow in plains and deserts. He has mentioned 230 plants in all. (1)
Another lexicographer and grammarian who wrote on plants was Ahmad Ibn Da’ud Ibn Wanand, nicknamed al-Dinawari. He was also called al- Ashshãb (the herbalist). He was a trustworthy reporter, an expert botanist, astronomer and logician Who compiled a number of works on various subjects.
In his book on plants al-Dinawari described, after observing the plants in the places where they grew, all that he had discovered and also all that his predecessors had mentioned. He did not leave even the minute details. This book was considered to be a standard work on herbalism, medicine and lexicography at a time when no one could become a physician or herbalist unless he had thoroughly studied this book, and was examined in it. (2)
Al-Birüni (d.1048) made observation on plants. He discovered that flowers have 3, 4, 5, 6 or 18 petals, never 7 or 9. (3)
A physician Mãsarjwaih also compiled a work on the properties of simple drugs mentioning their good and bad effects. He was a Syrian Jew who flourished during the reign of Umar Ibn ‘Abd al-’Aziz, and translated for him and for the Caliph Marwan some Greek works into Arabic. He translated the second part of Galen’s work on simple drugs, which consists of six discourses. The translation was corrected by Hunain lbn Ishaq. (4)
The Ancient scientists attached more importance to the translation of Dioscorides’work than to other botanical works. The later writers based their works on it adding whatever they knew of plants and simple drugs. Dioscorides was a distinguished scientist and an authority on herbs. He was a native of Anazarbos, hence called Ainzarbi. He travelled extensively and made investigations on plants and their properties. When he reached certain conclusions about the plants, he entered them into his book illustrating them with the pictures representing the colours of plants. The book of Dioscorides consists of five discourses. Two more discourses on the animal poisons are ascribed to him. Thus the total number of discourses is seven.
The first discourse deals with sweet smelling drugs. The second consists of the description of vegetables and animals and their fluids. The third discourse discusses the roots of plants, the thorny plants and similar topics. The fourth deals with the drugs which are cold in nature, those which are warm, and those which cause relief from poisonous effects. The fifth discourse mentions different kinds of drinks and mineral drugs. (5)
One of the most important Ancient scientist botanists was Abu’l-Mansur Rashid al-Din Abu’l-Fadl Ibn Ali al-Süri He was the greatest authority on simple drugs, the variety of their names, their properties and uses. He was born in 1177 at the city of Sur in Syria, and was brought up there. Later he came to Baghdad where he started the study of medidine from Shaikh Muwaffaq al-Din Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi. Al-Suri spent two years in Quds, at the hospital of the city where he practiced medicine.
Al-Süri went to the places where the plants could be found, like the hills of Lebanon and other places which were famous for one or the other plant. He used to take with him a painter having different kinds of colours and paints. He observed the plants and showed them to his painter. The painter noticed the colour and roots of the plants, the size of their leaves and branches, and made the pictures accordingly. Al-Suri showed the plants to the painter at the time of their growth, maturity and withering. The painter prepared the pictures of the plants at every stage of their development, and filled in them the colours which he observed at that time. Al-Suri included these illustrations in his book on simple drugs and plants. He collected in it the material that he found in the books of the ancients, and also mentioned the drugs which he had discovered himself and their use which he came to know. Al-Suri served al-Malik al-Adil Abu Bakr Ibn Ayyüb as a physician in 1215, and accompanied him from Quds to the Egyptian lands. After the death of al-Malik al-Adil, he served his son, al- Malik al-Mu’azzam ‘Isa Ibn Abi Bakr. After the latter’s death, al-Suri served his son, al-Malik al-Nasir Da’ud Ibn al-Malik al-Mu’azzam. He was made the chief physician. Al-Suri died in 1241 in Damascus. (6)
Another illustrious scholar and a distinguished botanist was Abu Ja’far Ahmad lbn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sayyid al-Ghafiqi (d. 1165). As compared with others, he had a greater knowledge of the properties, uses and names of the simple drugs. His book on this subject is a valuable source of information. The author described briefly what Dioscorides and Galen wrote on this subject. He also mentioned what the later writers contributed to this branch of science. Thus his book consists of the accounts of simple drugs given by those who are learned in this field. (7)
One of the most important Ancient scientist botanists was Abu Muhammad ‘Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad al-Mãliqi al-Nabäti, known as Ibn al-Baitàr. He was the greatest expert of his time in identifying the plants. He conducted research on the plants, and acquired a good knowledge of the names of the plants and their species and the places where they grew. He travelled in the Roman lands (Asia Minor) and some other territories and observed the plants in the places where they grew. There he also met some botanists, and learnt from them about many plants. He also met some well known botanists in the Maghrib and other places.
Ibn al-Baitar was in the service of al- Malik al-Kamil Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr Ibn Ayyüb. He was considered to be an authority on simple drugs and shrubs, and was appointed in Egypt as the chief of physicians and apothecaries. He remained in his service until his death. Then he was honoured by his son al-Malik al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyilb. He died in Damascus in 1048. Al-Baitàr is the author of many works on simple drugs and other subjects. One of them is the Kitab al-Jami’ fi‘l-Adwiyyah al-Mufradah. This book is chiefly based on the works of his Greek and Ancient scientist predecessors, but also contains his personal observations made in different lands. The opinions of the later scholars about mineral, animal and plant drugs have also been quoted in the book. The author gave in alphabetical order the Persian, Latin and Berber tames of the simple drugs and also cleared the confusions in the names. He also mentioned their properties and uses. This book is the best Arabic work on this subject. It was written for Al-Malik al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyüb Ibn al-Malik al-Kãmil. It was translated into French and German. (8)
Another famous scholar and botanist of Spain was Abu’l-Abbas Ahmed lbn Muhammad Ibn Mufarraj Ibn Abi’l-khatib known as Ibn al-Rumiyah. He was a native of Seville. In 1216 he went to Egypt. He lived for two years in Egypt, Syria and Iraq where the people learnt something from him. In these lands he observed many plants which were not found in his native land. He observed the plants in the places where they grew. When he reached Alexandria the Sultan al-Malik al-’Adil Abü Bakr Ibn Ayyub heard about his scholarship and his deep knowledge of plants. The Sultan called him to his court and honoured him. He stayed with him for sometime, and then returned to Spain.
Ibn al-Rümiyah was a well-known scholar, researcher on medicine, the author of many works and fond of collecting books. One of his writings is a commentary on Dioscorides’ book dealing with simple drugs. He also wrote a travelogue at the end of his travels in the Eastern land entitled Al-Rihlat al-Mashriqiyyah. It is a collection of his discussions and observation made particularly on the coasts of the Mediterranean. (9)
The last famous writer on agriculture in Spain was Abü Zakariyyä Yahya Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Awwam al-Ashbili. His valuable book is entitled Kitab al-Falahah. It is based on the works of his Greek, Roman, Nabatean and Ancient scientist predecessors, but also includes the author’s personal observations. It is divided into two parts which consist of 35 chapters. Every chapter deals with some definite topics concerning agriculture. (10)
Another important book on agriculture was written by Shaikh Radi al-Din al-Qarshi. It is entitled Jami’ farã’ id al-Malähah fi Jawami’ Fawa’id al-Falahah. It consists of the following eight chapters:
1. Various kinds of soil
2. Watering, digging of canals and wells and taking out of water
3. Trees and their plantation
4. Various methods of plantation
5. Seeds and grains, their selection, sowing and cutting
6. Various types of flavours , flowers, etc.
7. Description of the days, months, weathers, etc., suitable for cultivation.
8. Storage of grains, seeds, dry and fresh fruits, some vegetables1 extracts, salts,
yeasts, rose water, etc.’ (11)
The first geographer and traveller who mentioned plants in his books was Ibn al-Wádih al-Ya’qübi (d. 1794). He travelled throughout the Ancient scientist world and composed a work entitled Kitab al-Buldán. (12)
The famous geographer Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd Allah Ibn Idris al-Husaini al-Saqali, commonly known as al-Sharif al-Idrisi, also wrote three works on plants and simple drugs. One of them entitled ‘Kitab al-Jãmi’ li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabät contains the description of various useful drugs relating to trees, fruits, roots, flowers, minerals, etc. The names of drugs have been arranged in alphabetical order, and their Arabic, Persian, Greek, Syrian, Latin and Berber names have been described. The author has mentioned the use of some plants and the oils and gums extracted from them. The book consists of four parts. The first part contains the description of 369 simple drugs and the second one of 250. (13)
The greatest botanist of the 16th century was Da’ud Ibn Umar al-Nasir al-Antäki. He was a distinguished physician as well No scientist compiled such a valuable work on simple drugs as he did. He made a remarkable addition to the knowledge of his predecessors regarding the simple drugs and their uses. (14)
An important botanist of the 18th century was ‘Abd al-Razzäq Ibn Muhammad Ibn Hamadush Al-Jazä’iri. In 1717—18 he left for Makkah for the performance of Hajj . He wrote a book called ‘Kashif al-Rumüz fi Sharh al-Aqaqir wa’l-A’shab. This book seems to be a summary of the books written on this subject by Abd al-Razzaq’s predecessors with the addition of the new substances which were used by the Europeans as drugs. He also gave their common and local names. He derived information from the works of Ibn Sinä, Ibn al-Baitar and Da’ud al-Antaki. One thousand simple drugs in all have been dealt with. This was translated into French. (15)
1. Al-Baghdadi, Ismail Basha,Hadiyyat al-‘Arifin , Istanbul, 1951, Vol. I, p. 623.
2. Ibid., p. 52.
3. Sarton George, Introduction to the History of Science,Washington, 1950, Vol. I, p. 707.
4. Al-Qifti, ‘Ali Ibn Yusuf ,Tarikh al-Hukama,Leipzig, 1903, p. 324.
5. Ibid. p. 94, Ahmad ‘Isa, Tarikh al-Nabat Ind al-’Arab ,Cairo, 1944, p. 38.
6. Al-Zirakli, Khair al-Din, Al- A’lam, Beirut,1955, (2nd Edition), Vol. III, p. 49.
7. Sarton, op. cit., Vol. II, P4rt I, p. 424.
8. Ibid. , Part II, p. 663.
9. Al-Zirakli, Vol. I, p. 210.
10.Al-Baghdadi, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 520.
11. Ahmad ‘Isa, Op. cit., Cairo, 1944, p. 110.
12. Ibid., p. 113.
13. Al-Zirakil, Vo. 7, p. 250.
14. Al-Baghdadi, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 362.
15. Kahhalah, ‘Umar Rida, Mu’jam al-Mu’llifin, Damascus, 1958, Vol. 5, p. 218.
Why Weatherize Your Home?
For those of us who live in colder climates, you might just assume we do what we can to keep our homes warm and use our energy wisely during the winter months. Yes, you would assume.
Many do go the extra mile to seal their homes by installing their storm windows, replacing weather stripping on doors, insulating their walls, blowing extra insulation into their attics, installing programmable thermostats and a hundred other energy saving projects.
At the same time, many people do little or nothing at all. Whether they lack the time, don’t have the skills, are only renting the home or have funding issues, it’s hard to say. The result is that many homes, especially older homes within cities, have little or no work done to conserve energy.
So, this article is not for those who already weatherize their homes for winter, but for those who don’t. It’s my desire to find a way to motivate you to save energy, reduce your carbon footprint, and yes, save you money. That’s tight, I’m going to attempt to twist your arm in an effort to help you save money.
Let’s look again at the possibilities or situations why a home might not be properly weatherized.
LACK OF TIME TO WEATHERIZE
I can understand this excuse, but I will not validate it. Assuming you have some skill and some idea of how to weatherize, saying you have no time is more of an attempt to say you are either lazy or have simply chosen you don’t want to do that specific type of work.
There are many types of work that we might not enjoy doing and if you just can’t find the time to weatherize your home, then get somebody to do it for you. Yes, there are thousands of businesses out there that are waiting for you to call. They are eager to perform a wonderful job weatherizing your home.
So, while being busy, take just one moment and do a search online or in your local yellow pages and call a business that performs home weatherization and then your task is done. You will have gotten that monkey off your back and you’ll feel good that you have done something to conserve energy…plus you will save money.
LACK OF SKILL
Your stance is that you want to weatherize your home, but you are not sure how to get that long yellow thing out of the tape measurer or you are confused about what a 6-in-1 screwdriver is or how to use it. I can sympathize with you and for all those who know you, but that is still no excuse for not taking any action to seal your home.
Nobody was born with knowledge, but we were all born with drive. Many of us have suppressed this drive over time and ended up learning very little in life, but the cool thing is that this is simply a choice and not really an affliction. What this means is that you do have it in you to learn new things. You really do. Say it quietly to yourself at first. “I can learn new things”. Now say it out loud, “I can learn new things.”
No matter what your past has taught you and no matter what your friends and relatives say, you can always do better if your truly choose to do so. Choose to do better and choose to set aside any fear of what you have to learn in order to weatherize your home and simply choose that you will learn what you must learn so that you can weatherize your home.
It can be a brave new world for you. It can be the beginning of a new world of confidence. Just choose to try, and when it gets tough or a little hairy, push through and try a little harder.
To get you started, I have two references for you with respect to learning about weatherization work:
Insulate and Weatherize – by Bruce Harley
This is a well written book that will show you many helpful things and will open a world of ideas for how to weatherize your home.
Weatherize America ( http://www.weatherizeamerica.com )
This online weatherization business program is not just for businesses who want to perform weatherization work, but for anyone who wants to learn how to inspect their home and then follow up and perform the necessary weatherization repairs.
TENANTS OF HOMES AND APARTMENTS
If you are determined to not put one cent of your money into the home or apartment you rent, that is your right, but if you are also the one paying for the heat, it’s time to change your mind about what you think you are losing by weatherizing the space you pay to heat.
If you pay for the heat, you are the primary one who wins by any improvement you make to weatherize the home. Sure, some of the things you do might be permanent and will work towards increasing the value of the home, but it would help if you could set aside those thoughts for a moment and think about what is best for you. What will help you? Don’t let it matter if it helps anyone else as well. Just focus on the thought of what will help you.
Will it help you if weather stripping on the doors is replaced? Will it help you if the single pane unused windows in the basement are permanently sealed off? Will it help you if the basement were better insulated where it is mostly above ground level? Will it help if cracks in the walls were caulked to stop air from blowing in? Will it help you if your drier vent was replaced with a drier vent seal? Will it help you if your water heater or boiler were wrapped with insulation?
All those questions pertain to improvements that may very well be permanent and would be helping the landlord to some degree, but to an even greater degree, they would be helping you, so just do them. If you choose to not do them in order to spite the landlord, his house has not changed and he loses nothing, but your heat is flowing out of the home , so you lose.
As a tenant most of my life, the first thing I did in almost every home I moved into was to rewire it to some degree (rooms are not functional with just two receptacles) and I would insulate and seal it well. The bottom line is that I was going to live there and I wanted to be comfortable, and yes, the landlords home was improved and yes, the people who lived there after me were able to benefit by what I did, but who cares? I benefited for the whole time I lived there and I saved more money than what any improvements ever cost, plus I increased the comfort level of the home while I lived there.
If you are a tenant, everyone wins when you weatherize, but you win first, so set aside any reservations you might have and do yourself a favor and weatherize the space you are living in. You will waste less fuel, decrease your carbon footprint and will save money.
I understand not having money, but you do have money, it’s just that there does not seem to be enough to ‘waste’ on improvements when so many other needs or desires already stand in line for your precious dollars.
You can still perform many weatherization improvements, but high-tech options such as shrink-wrap window seals can be set aside for good old sheets of plastic and duct tape. In addition, you would be amazed at how much weatherizing could be performed with a few tubes of carefully placed caulking.
One trick I learned to create the perfect seal is what I call the ‘poor mans window seal’. Start by opening the window or door that does not seal well when shut. Apply a thick bead of caulking to the immoveable window or door area where the window or door would push against when closed. Place a sheet of plastic wrap over the length of the caulking and then close the window or door tightly. Wait 12 to 24 hours and then open the window or door and remove the plastic swap and viola, you have a perfect fitting seal.
Overall, what I am trying to say is that even when the money is scarce, do as many little things as possible and be creative. The bottom line is that you will spend that money or more on fuel anyway.
One final option, and it varies dramatically from state to state, is to see if there is a local, county or state program to help you finance your home weatherization needs. Depending upon your income level, you might find you qualify for free or low cost weatherization work.
FOR EVERYONE ELSE
It pays to weatherize. There is no simpler way to say it. It pays to weatherize. So many people benefit when you choose to weatherize. First, there’s you, then there are those you might hire to help you, and then there’s the stores you buy the supplies from, and then there’s the global fuel demand which you just helped to lower, reducing prices for everyone in the world, and then finally there is the world that benefits.
Weatherizing is the gift that keeps on giving since many of the improvements you make will last for years, plus, many of the improvements you make to reduce your fuel costs, will also help reduce air conditioning costs during the summer. There is simply no down-side to weatherizing.
Weatherize your living space today and the whole world becomes a happier place.
David is the author of ‘The Rewards of Making Energy Efficient Choices’, and specializes in Heating and Air Conditioning and Electrical Wiring. Websites include: Weatherize America and Best Energy Saving Products
Find More Weather Articles
by Bartek Kuzia
Stop Loss Order for Day Trading
What is Stop Loss Order?
Stop loss order is an order to close position if/when losses reaches a particular point. In other words this is an order by which you can decide the maximum loss that you are ready to accept. Here we are going to discuss only Stop Loss Order regarding Day Trading, but the same principle can be used for Swing Trading or Long Term Trading.
Following Example can explain the point.
If u have placed a buy order at 100. You need not place a stop loss order till your trade gets executed. Once your trade gets executed, you have to place another order for Stop Loss.
Now lets assume that CMP(Current Market Price) is 100.50.
Stop Loss Order should be like this
Quantity = Quantity you have got (received).
Trigger price =99.50
Note: Trigger price is the price at which your order gets triggered (fired). Till then it’s on hold.
So in our example If CMP falls from 100.50 to 99.55 nothing will happen but at 99.50 your order (Stop Loss) for sell will get executed at a price of 99.40 so your loss would be limited to 0.60 (100-99.40) only.
Percentage Of Stop Loss
For day trading stop loss of 1-2% max is recommended. Some traders like me use 0.5% stops, which is what I have explained (100-0.5%*100=99.5). You have to decide the % according to your experience & confidence.
If you don’t use stop loss order the price can go down by 5% or even 20% & you won’t be able to do much then, hence for every trade without fail you should use stop loss order.
A warning, don’t ever think that just because you have placed stop loss order, you are 100 % safe. That’s not the case even after a stop loss order you can suffer huge loss. Surprised? See how.
In the above example if the your stop loss order gets triggered at 99.50 for 99.40 but there is no buyer at 99.40 so the order will get triggered but not executed till there is some one ready to buy at 99.40. In mean while some one else has put a sell order at 99.30, now you are at number two still waiting, then if some one puts a sell order at 99.10 you are at number three & hence your order may left behind while others keep putting orders at less than your order & you may wonder why my stop loss order did not get execute!!!!!!!!!!!
Solution for above problem is as follows.
The gap between trigger price & price is important. If you want your stop loss order to be more secured, increase the gap.( Gap between Trigger Price & Price). i.e. triggered price at 99.50 & price 99.10(instead of 99.40). You should change the gap depending upon the share you trade. More volatile stocks require big Gap while for slow movers small Gap is enough. You can decide the Gap on the basis of difference between best buy & best sell (bid /ask) in second window.
Stop Loss For Shorting
For shorting that is selling first & then buying, the stop loss order has to be reversed as follows.
If you have shorted at 100(CMP=99.50)
Stop Loss order should look like this
Quantity = Quantity you have shorted
Trigger Price =100.50
Cancel/Modify Stop Loss Order
The most important thing if your stop loss does not get hit & you earn profit by squaring of your position; do not forget to cancel the stop loss order. Yes I repeat do not forget to cancel the stop loss order. Other better option is that you can modify your stop loss order as Trailing Stop till the execution. (I do this as I forget to cancel the stop loss order.)
Following example can explain how you can do this.
Your Stop Loss for first example was 99.50 for 99.40, right? Now if the CMP has gone up from 100.50 to 102.20, you can modify your stop loss order to 101.10 in place of 99.50 & 101.00 for 99.40. If price keeps going up, keep following the price by modification.
Always remember the following rule.
For buy’s Stop Loss Order (Type=Sell) “Trigger Price” should be more than “Price” of Stop Loss Order & for Short Selling’s Stop Loss Order (Type=Buy) “Trigger Price” should be less than “Price” of Stop Loss Order.
Some Trading Systems allow Trader to enter Stop Loss Order at the time of Actual Order and some Systems allow Stop Loss Order to get automatically cancelled against squaring off position.
Happy Day Trading
Falling Slowly Ringtone | Download Lee DeWyze Falling Slowly Ringtone
Falling Slowly ringtone – Download Falling Slowly ringtone direct to your phone in seconds! Be one of the first to get Falling Slowly ringtone on your cell phone.
“Falling Slowly” by Lee DeWyze and Crystal Bowersox was performed on the ninth season of American Idol during “Songs from the Cinema” week where it was highly praised by the judges. Simon called it “fantastic,” and Kara said it was one of her “favorite moments of the entire season.”
** Click Here To Get Falling Slowly Ringtone Sent Straight To Your Phone **
Being well known for releasing awesome songs, Lee DeWyze have done it again with the release of Falling Slowly. Although this is a fairly new release by Lee DeWyze, “Falling Slowly” is currently one of the top downloads at online music stores such as Amazon and iTunes. There is already a buzz on video tube sites such as YouTube and Falling Slowly is certain to rocket high into the charts around the globe. Make sure you don’t miss out on this latest offering from Lee DeWyze. This song’s reach is not just limited to mp3 downloads, the Falling Slowly ringtone is one of the hottest ringtone downloads around at the moment. If you’re into Lee DeWyze in a big way, you should definitely have some Lee DeWyze ringtones on your phone.
** Click Here To Instantly Download Lee DeWyze Ringtones To Your Phone **
True fans of Lee DeWyze should be downloading their music legally. Tracks cost as little as .99 from a site such as iTunes and even less from a subscription site. For information about subscription music sites and to get free trials, have a look at www.legalmusicguide.com. You can also get the Falling Slowly Ringtone sent directly to your phone. If you are looking for the latest and greatest ringtone, click here to Download Falling Slowly Ringtone straight to your phone now.
Related Slowly Articles
Term Papers: Writing on Sociology
Are you unclear on where to begin on writing term papers on sociology? Not well versed enough with the subject matter at hand? If history is a lesson which would teach us to emulate the great leaders of yesteryear and learn from their mistakes, we have to take the first step, which is to learn.
Researching the internet, reviewing professional publications and texts from your local library will not help you much if you do not wish to learn. Writing term papers on sociology comes naturally to those who are knowledgeable with their chosen subject matter and the topic at hand.
Writing about an individual or a group of people requires simply an analytical approach and review of the biography of the person(s) involved. Another idea is to review a professionally published and write a critical analysis on it. Researching published facts and writing a review will prove to be an easy task for any American student.
Term papers on sociology can be about theories developed and recorded by experts. Most courses on sociology require that the students compile a study based on previously published articles, books, journals, etc. Using the concepts published therein and testing them on present settings and situations. An in-depth analysis of the concepts first and the situation to be reviewed second, lead to a great written report.
All the ideas listed above are only a general indication of the requirements of this course in relation to various principles, disciplines, development peculiarities and a number of sociological issues.
Flash Papers Team is a legitimate research paper writing company who provides research to all levels of students.
Find More Writing Articles
Please Welcome “the Penelope Write Foundation”
The Penelope Write Foundation is a non-profit organization that has been established to cater to the needs of children that reside in and attend schools within low income communities. This organization is being sponsored by Parker & Sons Publishing on behalf of Penelope Write. Penelope Write is a native of Chicago, Author, Graduate Student, and single mother of four children.
The foundation’s overall goal is to enhance the reading and writing skills of students who struggle with finding fun in learning and have difficulty advancing academically in these areas. The foundation itself will implement a Literacy Scholar Program into three (3) schools within the following states during latter of 2010: Illinois (Chicago), Georgia (Atlanta), Louisiana (New Orleans), Mississippi (Jackson), and Tennessee (Memphis).
NOTE: This program is also being extended to schools within the following countries in order to support their students: Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Haiti, and Somalia.
Our foundation is extremely ecstatic with presenting your school and its students with the opportunity to enroll into our Literacy Scholar Program course offerings. In order to inquire further, please contact us directly via (773) 291-0629, visit us online via www.penelopewrite.com. Our experienced team of Educational Management Representatives will be sure to follow up with you within 3-5 business days.
In order to provide us with contributions for the organization’s purpose, please visit us online via http://parkersonspublishinginc.com/the_penelope_write_foundation. anytime at your convenience.
We look forward to your continued support in honor of Penelope Write.
Parker & Sons Publishing
Media Relations Department
Penelope Write is a native of Chicago and single mother of four children. She began her journey as a college student in 1996 and later her career with the Illinois Department of Corrections (IDOC) as an Office Associate. In 2001, Penelope’s loyalty as an Office Associate landed her into a successful and fulfilling career as an Executive Staff member within IDOC. Remaining committed and focused, she managed to achieve her goal of receiving an Associates of Applied Science Degree majoring in Computer Science. This accomplishment motivated her to pursue an undergraduate degree as a student attending Roosevelt University. In September 2006, Penelope received her Bachelor of Professional Studies Degree with a concentration in Paralegal Studies. Moreover, her passion to pursue the childhood dream of becoming a successful Author & Role Model for teenage mothers conquering a life of strife and poverty engulfed her. So, she embraced this mission and resigned from her position. It was then she stepped out on faith to pursue her dream of becoming a Best-Selling Author…
Complete video at: fora.tv Critically acclaimed author Joyce Carol Oates discusses how a writer develops realistic characters, using examples from her novel “The Gravedigger’s Daughter.” —– Joyce Carol Oates talks about “The Gravedigger’s Daughter.” A family desperate to escape Nazi Germany settles in upstate New York, where the father is demeaned by the only job he can get: gravedigger an cemetery caretaker. What follows is a tale of unspeakable tragedy, as the gravedigger’s daughter begins her astonishing pilgrimage into America, an odyssey of ingenious self-invention and bittersweet triumph – Book Passage Joyce Carol Oates (born June 16, 1938) is an American author and the Roger S. Berlind ’52 Professor in the Humanities with the Program in Creative Writing at Princeton University, where she has taught since 1978. She serves as associate editor for the Ontario Review, a literary magazine, and the Ontario Review Press, a literary book publisher, both of which are edited by her husband, Raymond J. Smith. Oates has also written under the pseudonyms “Rosamond Smith” and “Lauren Kelly.” Her most recent book is “The Gravedigger’s Daughter.”
Country Club India Franchise Clubs – The Widening Network
The Country Club India network of clubs is known all around with its members as the most accessible and reachable clubbing facility. The best feature that country club India member’s recognize is the number of own clubs and the country club India franchise clubs that provide the best service for the country club India members. These country club India franchise clubs are situated in almost all the states and regions in our country.Â Â These country club India franchise clubs have their presence starting from Jammu and Kashmir to Kodaikanal.
With the provision from country club India franchise clubs, Jammu and Kashmir offers different exquisite hotels and resorts for the country club India member’s. Country Club Heevan Resort â Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. Country Club Heevan Retreat â Gulmarg, Jammu and Kashmir. Country Club Hotel Heevanâ Pahalgam, Jammu and Kashmir. Country Club Pine & Peak Resort â Pahalgam, Jammu and Kashmir. Th4e beauty of the Jammu and Kashmir is totally enjoyed by the country club India members with the help of the country club India franchise clubs in Jammu and Kashmir. The natural beauty that comprises the awesome snow capped mountains in Himachal Pradesh can be enjoyed by the country club members via country club India franchise clubs in shimla and Manali. Country Club Orchard Green â Manali. Country Club De Vivendi Resorts â Manali. Country Club Galleu Hill Resort â Shimla. Country Club River Country Resort â Manali. Country Club Sirmour Retreat â Sirmur District, Himachal Pradesh. Country Club Snow Valley Resort â Manali. Country club India franchise clubs also provides its clubs in Assam and Haryana too for the member’s pleasure.
Country club India franchise clubs are also a perfect destination in Goa as it has eight classy getaways namingÂ Â The Country Club Aldiea Bello Resort â Goa. The Country Club Alegria De Goa Resort â Goa. The Country Club Beira mar Alfran Resort â Goa. The Country Club Leoney Resort â Goa. The Country Club Lotus Inn Resort â Goa. The Country Club Maizons Lake View Resort â Goa. The Country Club Resorte De Tio Carmino â Goa. Country Club Roma Gardens â Pen, Mumbai â Goa Highway.
Country club India franchise clubs provide more options for the members in the other cities like West Bengal, Uttarkhand, Tamilnadu,Silvassa,Rajasthan,Orissa,Madhya Pradesh, Mysore,Maharashtra,Kerala,Karnataka,Hyderabadand other parts ofAndhra Pradesh. Country club India franchise clubs are known for providing best facilities and luxury options for all the country club India members.
For More Information Please Visit:Country Club India Ltd.is the best network of clubs and resorts Country Club India Company profile,Country Club India Franchise Clubs,Country Club India Fractional Ownerships, Country Club India Member Testimonials, Country Club India Leader in Clubbing, Country Club India Press Room.Country Club Bangalore.
Related Country Articles
Knowledge As Emerging Patterns Of Interaction
Normal 0 Knowledge as emerging patterns
Knowledge as Emerging Patterns of Interaction
This paper examines how knowledge can be seen as continuously emerging patterns of interactions between individuals. It particularly focuses the nature of human organisations and how that nature affects the learning in individuals and -as a consequence- the continuous emergence of organisational knowledge. In order to do this, we will first look at the nature of organisations. This by examining what we see is the most helpful way to characterise organisations, clearly offsetting organisations as âsystems’ versus âprocesses’. It will be clarified that knowledge may exist only in the interaction between people and can therefore not simply be reified as âtangible’, âtacit’ or âexplicit’. We propose it exists in context and only in context. Thus, we consider knowledge as intrinsically social. Also, we consider knowledge as something that emerges only âfrom within’. There are no outsiders. Someone with information that exists in total isolation without the possibility to act cannot generate knowledge. This makes knowledge inherently âlocal’. âGlobal knowledge’, as in âbest practices’ or âbusiness processes’ are an illusion if they do not resonate with the experience of people in local interactions. We will use recent insights from the complexity sciences to examine the interactions and hence the continuous emergence of knowledge. It will become clear that âknowledge’ and âorganising’ are âcomplicitly’ linked.
In the quote above from the âHitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy’, this is illustrated with the illustrated with an interesting philosophical undertone, despite its inherent humour. The supercomputer Deep Tought took seven and a half million years to some up with the answer to Life, The Universe and Everything as the world-famous â42′. In the next chapter from the book the immediate implication is that we then first (sic!) have to know the âUltimate Question’ (Adams, 1995: 128). It then is decided to build the Earth as the next generation supercomputer to find that Ultimate Question. Later in the book it becomes clear that the Ultimate Question is âsix by nine’ (Adams, 1995: 305). At least, in base thirteen. All is contextual, you see.
2 Are organisations systems or processes?
The complexity sciences have emerged mainly from the natural sciences like physics, chemistry and biology. It has shown tremendous power in helping these sciences forward and explaining complex phenomena that previously could not be described adequately. These were those situations where the sheer number of interactions between particles or smaller units (the âlocal’) led to unpredictable behaviour on a global level. The complexity sciences were able to convincingly explain why simple global patterns emerge out of complex local interactions. Because of these successes, and the many complex issues that human organisations, and particularly business organisations, face complexity theory has often been used successfully as a metaphor to help organisations forward (see for instance Zimmerman, Lindberg & Plsek, 1998: 4-18). Understandably. Human organisations consist of many âagents’ interacting and display very complex and unpredictable behaviour. So much is not disputed. In order to be able to describe many of the observed behaviour people resorted to complexity theory. In natural systems, a very useful idea has been the definition of these bounded systems as âcomplex adaptive systems’ or CAS. The theory being that because of the complex interactions the system is âcoupled’ to the external environment (perhaps via semi-permeable boundaries) so that they âadapt’ to it. Thus viewed, each system is ânested’ in a larger (âhigher’) system. Therefore it is a small step to then see human organisations as systems and consequently as complex adaptive systems, in parallel with the natural sciences. This view then logically leads to teams, departments, organisations, etc., being seen as ânested systems’ (Kelly & Allison, 1999: 12-13, 19). The next step is to realise that human organisations may not simply ‘adapt’ to the environment. Perhaps what they do is co-evolve in that environment. We may see them as Complex Evolving Systems, or CES. (See for instance Heylighen, 1997).
These metaphors are powerful ways to look at human organisations. The principles of self-organisations, emergence, âedge of chaos’, etc., from the complexity sciences can provide interesting new insights in issues that organisations face. Given the constant struggle in business organisations to find ways to âcope’ with the inherent uncertainty they face, these relatively new theories help to make sense. But, as with all metaphors, there is a risk that we take them too far. People started to have conversations on whether or not organisations are a CAS or CES. Then, by inference, we start to say that organisations therefore must comply with this and that observation for a CAS. An interesting example, for instance, is the debate between organizational professionals whether or not âtherefore’ (sic!) âhuman systems’ emerge from âsimple rules’. This, in turn, is inferred from simple computer based systems in which âboids’, having been programmed with three âsimple rules’ start displaying behaviour that has been characterised as âflocking’, very much like a 2D projection of flocks of birds. But please note that in reality, these boids are just computer blips on a screen. The âsimple rules’ can adequately describe the behaviour of those âblips’ on the screen. But that is all they can do! They cannot describe any real life flocking behaviour at all. Let alone describe how birds reproduce or multiply. Hardly a rich description of something as complex as a
living creature. But, since the observed âflocks’ were so convincing, it has been assumed most complex systems are somehow emerging from simple rules. Since a CAS can emerge from simple rules, so must human organisations, so people claim. That is why some people with some (but no more) notion of complexity theory state that what we have to do is âjust find the simple rules’. These often are typified as âvalues’. Stating the simple rules than becomes âdefining the values’ of the organisation. This is reverse logic. An Organisation is not a CAS. It may be modelled as a CAS, and as a metaphor that can give really powerful insights. But what are organisations, really? It may be helpful to start by what we know âfor sure’ about human organisations. They consist of people interacting in their daily (working) practices. Therefore for the purpose of this paper we will start with that: the interaction between people in organisation that we will call âthe social’. My claim in this paper is that a metaphor different from a âsystem’ may be more helpful to describe (the evolution of) organisational knowledge. The recent thinking from Ralph Stacey on complex responsive processes sees organisations not as systems, but rather chooses to pay attention to the interaction between people (Stacey, 2000). This view emphasises that organisations are not systems as such but looks as them as processes of people interacting. For the purpose of this paper I see this as a very helpful approach. These processes consist of âthe narrative-like sequences of gesture and response between human bodies’ (Stacey, 2000: 146-148). In these interactions people continuously reinterpret their own experiences (âpast’) in order to act (âgesture’) to achieve some future expected state. This expectation, in turn, feeds back on the interpretation of the past experiences. Each gesture triggers a similar process in other people who then ârespond’ with a new gesture. With many interactions this is a highly complex process (hence the term âcomplex responsive processes of relating’).
With continued interaction, as is happening in organisations some âthemes’ will
emerge. These themes emerge because of some common intention of the
future, real and existing differences in experience and intentions and real and
existing issues that exist in order to achieve this desired future. This
emergence is self-organising in nature. This is where insights from complexity
theory are very helpful indeed.
For the purpose of this paper I will call this process of emerging themes
âpatterning’ of the interaction between people.
There are a few implications that are paramount in this process.
For one, we need to realise that not all participants of this process are equally
âautonomous’. Crucial, as pointed out also by Stacey c.s. (Stacey, 2000: 213-4),
are the power relations that exist in all interactions. âSome people are more
autonomous than others’.
Secondly, all action is action that is interpreted by each individual differently.
There is no âknowable truth’ other than what resonates with each individual’s
past experiences (sic!) and their individual intentions (sic!). Since all individual
past experiences as well as their individual intentions are different, so is each
Also, importantly, there is no guarantee that people will speak âthe truth’. All
people will âgesture’ as to achieve their own desired future. In many
organisations not open and honestly sharing information is the norm rather
than the exception. Often, this is due to expected repercussions if the truth be
spoken. This means that conversations, as we can observe in all organisations,
are in fact the continuous negotiation of each person’s âintention’ and
âexpectations’. Thus, other people’s intentions become âenabling constraints’
(Stacey, 2000: 151-3) for these negotiations.
Richard Knowles (2002) has developed structured ways to examine the
processes of interaction and the emergent patterns. The combination of
Stacey’s complex responsive processes theory with Knowles’ self-organising
leadership theories could form a sound basis for studying knowledge
3 What is knowledge?
This is a paper about knowledge processes in organisations. We looked at
organisations as processes above.
I would like to use a definition from Dee Hock (1999), emeritus-CEO of VISA for
âknowledge’ and the hierarchy he puts in it.
Noise is the undifferentiated stuff happening all around us;
Data is the first level of organisation of the noise. It can be discerned and
differentiated by the human mind
Information is the next level of organisation of the data. Patterns and
relationships are starting to add meaning (Bateson’s âdifference that
makes a difference’)
Knowledge is the organisation of the information in a way that in the
right context it becomes useful to act, decide or create new knowledge.
Understanding is organisation of knowledge by individuals in a manner
useful for conceiving, anticipating, evaluating and judging. This is a
unique, personal experience.
Wisdom is achieved when the understanding is informed by intention,
ethics, principle, memory of the past and projection into the future.
Science, including organisational science, has traditionally focused on data,
information and knowledge and has largely ignored Understanding and
Wisdom. In the context of this paper I would like to maintain that Knowledge
without Understanding is not useful for the sustainability of organisations. In
the context of complex responsive processes a deep understanding, as wisdom
in the above definitions, is paramount.
For long term survival and health of organisations knowledge processes should
recognise the need for understanding and wisdom.
This is an important statement.
If we analyse it a few things jump out:
Information as such is not knowledge; just having information is not
enough. âJust a book’ is not enough. That is âjust’ information;
Knowledge is where pieces of information have been integrated;
knowledge, in that sense, has the potential to be novel. It also says that
more that one piece of information is required. This means at least a
form of diversity;
This combination has to happen in âthe right context’. So, without the
combination happening the real world (context) there is no knowledge
just pieces of information;
This knowledge must be applied. Crucial. If we cannot use the combined
pieces of information to act it is -by definition- useless;
This knowledge in itself can then act as a new piece of information to
create new knowledge. This is the ârecursiveness’ in this definition.
Understanding happens when individuals are able to project and apply
Seeing the importance of understanding, thus paying attention to
intention, ethics and principles, will lead to âorganisational wisdom’ that
is seated in the individuals!
Thus phrased, âknowledge’ is continuously emerging where the context
requires the combination of pieces of available information in order to âact’.
In this definition knowledge is not something tangible. It can not be codified or
taken away. Information can. We can store information in databases. Knowledge
has to be contextual. Since the context exists only where and when people
apply the knowledge it can not be codified.
So, books or papers or databases are ways of codifying information. By reading
we start âcontextualising’ this information in our heads. In this process we start
to create our own interpretation of this information. This interpretation is
dependent on our own personal past experiences and our own individual
expectations of the future. It either âresonates’ with our experience or it does
not. The information distilled from a book or paper or any other source will -by
default- always be different for the reader than from the writer. Meaning, thus,
is being created by the âresponder’ not by the âgesturer’.
Reading it a second time around will again give different interpretations and -
hence- different pieces of information. Even the writer will interpret his/her own
writings differently a next time round.
This has as an implication that each piece of information will, by default,
already have in it a level of diversity if more than one person at any one time is
interacting round this piece of information. Stacey (2000: 202-6) quite
convincingly points out that it is this very diversity that makes that ânovelty’ can
emerge out of the interactions. Without it, no novelty can occur. Put in a more
lyrical way, some one on his/her own in some remote and isolated desert can
acquire a massive amount of information (from books, etc.), without interaction
(diversity) true novelty will not occur.
If people interact they do that in a certain context. They will âbe’ at a certain
time and at a certain place. People’s individual experiences are continuously
being recreated in that context. This context is the perceived (!) issue around
which people may interact. Hence the pieces of information will continuously
change. Therefore, reflecting the ideas of complex responsive processes of
relating in organisations, their gestures and responses will continuously
This is another way of saying that each action people make, decisions they take,
information they create will change in each different circumstance.
Knowledge emerges in the gesture/response process as a social act.
Since these gestures and responses are the complex result of the many
individual’s past experiences and future expectations, so will the knowledge be
emerging out of those past experiences and future expectations in the context
of the perceived issue at hand.
Referring to paragraph 2 above, with continued interaction the expectations
and experiences will start to display complex themes or âpatterns’.
Knowledge can thus be seen as a pattern that emerges out of these
People’s actions are, in turn, governed by the emerging pattern thus closing the
loop. This loop helps us understand knowledge processes in organisations.
4 How organisations learn…
What we can learn from the paragraph 3 is that organisations don’t learn.
People as individuals learn.
Organisations are forums for people to interact. Organisations have been given
some form of intention by the people that work in/for them.
These people, though, are not isolated from the rest of their lives and context
outside of the organisation. If we mention a person’s individual past
experiences we mean all their individual experiences, in the business
organisation, at home, at their sports clubs, universities, on holiday, etc.
The processes of organising are these processes of interaction that we called
complex responsive processes of relating.
In the previous paragraph we described that âknowledge’ is one of the emerging
patterns in that process of organising.
But, at the same time, this patterning forms the process of interaction! Action
emerges out of the interactions whilst using the knowledge that emerges out of
that very action!
Cohen and Stewart (1997: 414-22) call such a relationship as here between
organising and knowledge a âcomplicit’ relationship.
Processes of organising Knowledge
Figure 3 – Action emerges, complicitly, out of organising and knowledge processes
Action emerges out of the coevolving relationship between knowledge and
organising. It is therefore inherently impossible to decouple knowledge from
the organising process. Since the entity of an organisation emerges out of this
complicit relationship, the complicit knowledge and organising processes are
This has some major consequences for how we see organisational learning.
We can describe the learning in organisations as the continuous patterning that
is happening in the process of interactions.
Knowles (2002: 107-23) introduces the model of the Process EnneagramTM.
This model is a way to show the perspectives of the interactions as process
patterns. It does that via multiple (nine, âennea’ (?????) is ânine’ in Greek)
In the interactions, people go through all perspectives all at the same time. This
is not a linear process at all. All nine elements are connected, but some
connections between elements will be stronger than others. That depends on
which people are interacting where and at what time. Thus, these patterns
reflect the collective histories of the interacting people, often organisations.
By paying attention to those connections we can see the patterns emerge.
People in organisations are thus given an insight in those patterns that they can
then internalise and use as pieces of information for their gestures and
Patterns as shown in
Process Enneagram Â©
People interacting via
Figure 4 – Making emerging patterns visible
They will only âinternalise’ those patterns if they see that these patterns
sufficiently resonate with their individual experience and intention. In other
words, the issue at hand (context) must be compelling enough for individuals
to want to engage in this way. Thus the interaction becomes the continuous
negotiation of what is and what is not compelling for individuals.
It is a very important leadership skill to be able to act (gesture) in ways that will
help people see the importance of the emerging theme. If the gesture is
compelling, people will respond to it in ways coherent with the leader’s
intention. The mentioned power relations may distort this view, because people
may act not because the issue is compelling, but because the potential
consequence of not acting the way a leader wants is compelling enough.
It is obvious that thus people do not internalise the emerging âknowledge’
pattern as part of their experience, but rather the âfear’ for repercussions. This
in turn becomes part of the organising pattern and hence organisational
It seems to me that this has significant implications for âorganisational
By internalising these emerging patterns as part of the interacting processes
this internalisation itself will become part of the patterns thus potentially
transforming the identity and intention of the interacting individuals.
Their individual transformation means they will act differently to the contextual
issues than they would have otherwise. Over time, we suggest that the
individual and collective identity and intention will converge since more and
more of the patterns will be internalised in each individual. They will never be
the same because each individual will still have an individual past experience
and future intention.
If the pattern that people make part of their individual identity and intention is
around the issue at hand than the action that people will take is important for
the organisation. People will have learned coherent action that will be âhelpful’.
Applied to the issue this is knowledge creation in the definition above. Thus the
process of learning is the process of evolving new patterns.
If, on the other hand, people internalise the âfear’ pattern, than the individual
learning will be entirely different. There will be very little connection between
the issue and people’s actions and -hence- the knowledge pattern. Very little
has been learned. Evolution is not linked to real life issues, but rather to people
avoiding other people’s actions (the boss’s actions!). Our experience shows
clearly that this happens in organisations.
We already established that the process of organising and knowledge creating
are complicitly linked.
From the reasoning above we can see that organisational learning as emerging
patterns of knowledge happens when people chose to interact around issues
that are important to them as individuals. The process of organising, including
the importance of power relations, can help or work against this process.
Leaders, therefore, have the choice how to âgesture’ in organisations realising
that their gestures may carry more âweight’ than that of others.
Without leaders seeing the importance of truly involving their people by
appreciating that their gestures somehow will have to resonate with people’s
authentic experience, very little knowledge creation will happen.
We have to think about how certain âbest practices’, defined as actions that
elsewhere have led to perceived positive (business) results, may or may not
resonate with people’s experience in the organisation where we work.
Actions, emerging from local interactions, are by definition local. âBest
Practices’ are therefore global patterns from specific local interactions. There is
little reason to see that they therefore will -automatically- resonate with other
people interacting locally.
In the words from above, practices need to evolve as patterns in organisations.
In the evolution metaphor, one can also not simply âplant’ a new species
somewhere and expect it to flourish.
Evolution of knowledge happens complicitly with the evolution of the
organising patterns. That is a major insight that surely must have major
implication on how organisations treat âmanaging knowledge’ and looking at
5 A Story: âSphinx’
We will now look at an example from all this in action. The particular story I will
use is about a business change management company I used to work for. Let’s
call the company Sphinx for the purpose of this paper. It is not the real name.
Knowledge as emerging patterns of interaction.doc Â© 2003, Symphoenix Ltd Page 12 of 15
Figure 5 – Sphinx’s emergent structure (2000)
Sphinx has always been an organisation that relied on people organising
themselves in helping its clients through complex change programmes. In order
to do this, the creation of novel and creative ways to help the clients is of
paramount importance. It is clear that the success of Sphinx’s business is firmly
based on knowledge (in the definition of this paper) and creativity. The way
Sphinx was organised was truly an emergent effect of the interaction between
people. In Figure 5 this is depicted as a series of âcells’. Usually people were
part of 2-3 cells at least. Some cells were permanent, others much more
transient, depending on the nature of it.
The âKnowledge groups’ were groups of people coming together to share ideas
and learning in areas that the people found important. The emergent nature of
it was that knowledge was being created when needed as perceived by the
This is very consistent with the model described above, where the âorganising’
process and the âknowledge’ process happen âcomplicitly’. Effective action (i.e.
helping the client) emerged. And, interestingly, there was no-one steering this.
People’s deliverables with clients were placed on a âKnowledge Database’, in the
language of this paper containing Information and Data about work that people
had done. In the Knowledge groups (either the more permanent ones or the ad
hoc ones) people would then refer others to material on that database that
seemed to fit into the emerging theme. These other could then âcontextualise’
(read: create knowledge of these themes) in their own client environment.
The way of working was very successful and the company achieved very large
organic growth percentages year on year. The latter was of course not just due
to the way knowledge processes worked, but it certainly played a pivotal role.
Building on its success, the company decided on some aggressive growth plans.
The growth plans unfortunately coincided with an unforeseen sharp down-turn
in the consulting market in 2001-2. The company’s âmanagement team’
decided that more structure was needed and imposed (sic!) that structure based
on its views. This happens in many organisations because often âstructure’ is
associated with âcontrol’. In my experience this is a flawed concept where,
despite this flaw, many organisations are based on. It ignores the resonance
with people other than the managers.
One of the structural components that were introduced was that a âSphinx Way’
was developed. This meant to be an Approach (certainly not a detailed
methodology) that all in Sphinx would use as part of their âknowledge’.
âKnowledge Teams’ were instated (as opposed to: âencouraged to emerge’) to
cover the subsets of this Approach, enabling management to control were
money would be spent on.
This had as a consequence that the Knowledge database was ârestructured’ to
reflect the new Approach and the new Knowledge Teams were set up to
populate and maintain the database and proliferate the knowledge. Although
there are apparent advantages in doing that (for instance: common language)
the richness of the emergent knowledge groups was lost. More importantly,
âknowledge’ was now reified and thought to be âtransferable’. This did not
resonate with people’s experience at all! The Knowledge Teams very much
became mechanical groups and the Sphinx Way a management tool for
budgeting purposes. The database was no longer a source for conversation but
something that needed to be âpopulated’. Much money was spent on people
doing just that: populate it.
In the mean time, other changes happened and the company has since been
shrinking significantly. This might well be worsened because the main asset,
conversations that created novelty and new knowledge, was unwittingly
We cannot segregate the creation of knowledge from the organising processes
that happen in organisations (as in the Sphinx story). A helpful way of looking
at those organising processes is the relatively new idea of complex responsive
processes of relating. Using principles from the complexity sciences we can see
that out of the many complex interactions of gesture and response, patterns
will emerge in a self-organised way.
These patterns are leadership themes, reconciled individual intentions, etc. The
patterns make that people in organisation can act in a meaningful way.
Knowledge as emerging patterns of interaction.doc Â© 2003, Symphoenix Ltd Page 14 of 15
If we define knowledge as integrated pieces of knowledge in the âright’ context,
we can clearly see that knowledge can only be created in context. Without an
appropriate shared view of the context in which individuals act, knowledge is
not a meaningful concept since it cannot lead to effective action.
There is an all important leadership task to be able to help people see the
issues at hand (context) in a way that is important enough for those people to
choose to engage in the process of organising and -hence- in the process of
If people see the context too differently, actions will be âincoherent’ and no
positive knowledge creation and hence coherent action can happen.
The ideas of âbest practice’ proliferation as ways to share information and
âmanage’ knowledge, has the potential of working counter productive if the
context in which it is being applied varies significantly from the originating
context. Chances are that they will be quite different on a global level. In that
case the information does not resonate with people’s experience and no
positive action can emerge out of the organising processes. This may explain
the difficulty in proliferating best practices in large organisations.
The codification of information (via databases, memos, books, procedures, etc.)
surely is an important part of the knowledge processes in organisations. But
without the facilitation of open and honest interaction between individuals in
organisations and the presence of leadership skills to help people âsee’ the
emerging patterns and shared context there is very little knowledge creation
Sadly, in many organisations the emphasis of knowledge processes is focused
on capturing information, rather at this all important element of open, honest
and direct interaction.
Our suggestion is that leaders use structured conversations, for instance as
proposed by Knowles (2002) by using the Process EnneagramTM. This model
allows people to âsee’ the emerging patterns as well as provides with a coherent
forum (âmap’) for sharing context and learning.
(Frank Smits, Â© February 2003)
Adams, D. (1995). The Hitch Hikers Guide to the Galaxy: A Trilogy in Five Parts.
London: Random House.
Cohen, J. and Stewart, I. (1994). The Collapse of Chaos, London: Penguin Books.
Heylighen, F. (1997). Classic Publications on Complex, Evolving Systems: a
citation-based survey, Principia Cybernetica Web,
Hock, D. (1999). The Birth of the Chaordic Age, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-
Kelly, S. and Allison, M.A. (1998). The Complexity Advantage, Boston, Mass:
Knowles, R.N. (2002). The Leadership Dance, Niagara Falls, NY: The Center for
Stacey, R. (2000). Complex Responsive Processes in Organisations, London:
Zimmerman, B., Lindberg, C. and Plsek, P. (1998), Edgeware, Irving, Tx.: VHA,
www.vGuitarLessons.com In this lesson you will learn a realy cool strumming pattern which not many people do. It will make your playing sound much more interesting! Go for it! www.vGuitarLessons.com